The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life. Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time. However, archaeology is distinct from paleontology and studies only past human life. Archaeology also examines many of the same topics explored by historians. But unlike history—the study of written records such as government archives, personal correspondence, and business documents—most of the information gathered in archaeology comes from the study of objects lying on or under the ground Archaeologists refer to the vast store of information about the human past as the archaeological record.


Richard Cowen’s Chapter Eight: Leaving the Water – images – curent page , , to , , years ago Eurypterids, otherwise known as sea scorpions. Wikipedia Late Ordovician survivals and extinctions: There were no land animals and extinctions were confined to water life.

Electron spin resonance dating: The determination of burial age through measurement of the concentration of free radicals created by natural radiation. Introduction To understand electron resonance (ESR) dating, one must, clearly, first understand the principles of electron spin resonance spectroscopy.

In both ESR and NMR, the sample material is immersed in a strong static magnetic field and exposed to an orthogonal low- amplitude high-frequency field. With ESR, energy is absorbed by the sample when the frequency of the radiation is appropriate to the energy difference between two states of the electrons in the sample, but only if the transition satisfies the appropriate selection rules.

Splitting can occur only when the electron is in a state with non-zero total angular momentum, i. The term ESR refers specifically to the case in which the spins of the electrons absorbing the radiation are only weakly interacting “weakly coupled” with each other. In NMR the static magnetic field splits the quantum states of a nucleus which has non-zero nuclear spin.

The observation of NMR requires that the total electronic spin be zero. Our experiment makes use of a bulk sample as contrasted to Rabi’s molecular beam resonance method discussed in Feynman , and is limited to those materials that have electrons with non-zero total angular momentum or a “dipole moment”. Because of chemical binding, most materials in bulk form do not have net electronic angular momentum, and thus are not suitable for this experiment.

Some materials which are suitable are: Atoms or ions of the transition elements which contain unpaired 3d electrons inside the completed 4s shell. A small number of organic molecules are called free radicals because they contain a single unpaired electron, aa-Di-phenyl-b-picryl-hydrazyl DPPH being the one that will be used as a calibration source for this experiment.

All but one of the electrons of this molecule are paired so there is only the orbital and spin motion of one electron present per molecule.

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This is, I feel, the attitude that other homeopaths should emulate by sharing their knowledge based on their own discoveries with the use of standard Homeopathic remedies in curing diseases which were not listed in the Repertories. I reported about 2 years ago that I had discovered that Arnica reduced Blood Sugar levels in both Type I and II Diabetics and as usual my report was held up in scorn immediately.

It was only when other homeopaths discovered that Arnica does in fact reduce BS levels and as you also rightly included BP levels in patients, that those who scorned me sat up and took notice that there was indeed method in my madness. You may have read the many attacks that classical homeopaths heaped upon me in the past few years on the homeopathic forums I visit daily, merely because they considered me a maverick who rocked their precious Classical Homeopathic boat too much.

I believe that they did so because at least some discovered that my presence on their classical forums could corrupt the minds of potential classical homeopaths who were already in homeopathic colleges, as my therapy which treats the disease directly in the allopathic manner, seemed to be more effective than the standard classical method of identifying just one remedy which takes into account all the other symptoms presented by the patient.

I do not wish to elaborate on this point as I have already dealt with it in other posts on the ABC.

The book “Principles and applications of ESR spectroscopy” is for students and scientists planning to use the method without necessarily becoming experts. The book provides sufficient knowledge to properly apply the technique and to avoid mistakes in the planning and performance of .

Discovery[ edit ] comparison with a human The first recorded Diprotodon remains were discovered in a cave near Wellington in New South Wales in the early s by Major Thomas Mitchell who sent them to England for study by Sir Richard Owen. In the s Ludwig Leichhardt discovered many Diprotodon bones eroding from the banks of creeks in the Darling Downs of Queensland and when reporting the find to Owen commented that the remains were so well preserved he expected to find living examples in the then-unexplored central regions of Australia.

The majority of fossil finds are of demographic groups indicative of diprotodonts dying in drought conditions. For example, hundreds of individuals were found in Lake Callabonna with well-preserved lower bodies but crushed and distorted heads. Other finds consist of age groupings of young or old animals which are first to die during a drought. In , a significant group of about 40 was found at Eulo , South-West Queensland. It was assigned to Diprotodontidae by McKenna and Bell The historical classification of Diprotodon consisted of eight species Diprotodon optatum Owen, ; Diprotodon australis Owen, ; D.

It had strong claws on the front feet and its pouch opening faced backwards. Footprints of its feet have been found showing a covering of hair which indicates it had a coat similar to a modern wombat. Until recently it was unknown how many species of Diprotodon had existed. Eight species are described although many researchers believed these actually represented only three at most while some estimated there could be around twenty in total. However, both the small and large diprotodonts coexisted throughout the Pleistocene and the size difference is similar to other sexually dimorphic living marsupials.

Further evidence is the battle damage common in competing males found on the larger specimens but absent from the smaller.

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Bosna i Hercegovina From the book “Politics of Genocide” author dr. Herman During the civil wars that accompanied the dismantling of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the s, the United States, Germany, NATO, and the European Union EU all sided with the national groups seeking to break away from the unified federal state, and opposed the national group that held out for the longest time to preserve it, the Serbs; this placed the Western bloc solidly behind the Croats and Slovenes, then the Bosnian Muslims, and finally the Kosovo Albanians.

Because the wars were supported and even carried out by the NATO powers, and there was significant ethnic cleansing and ethnic killings, it goes almost without saying that not only “ethnic cleansing” but also the words “massacre” and “genocide” were quickly applied to Serb operations. The remarkable inflation of claims of Serb evil and violence and playing down of NATO clients’ violence , with fabricated “concentration camps, ” “rape camps,” and similar Nazi- and Auschwitz-like analogies, caused the onetime head of the U.

Popular perceptions pertaining to the Bosnian Muslim government have been forged by a prolific propaganda machine.

The right to free speech is one of the most important rights there contest of ideas that free speech allows is so ly functioning liberal democracies depend esr dating method on the principle gets messy when right wing idiots who normally have no time for the concept of rights raise.

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Speleothems formed from salt, sulfur and other minerals are also known. Speleothems made of pure calcium carbonate are a translucent white color, but often speleothems are colored by chemicals such as iron oxide , copper or manganese oxide , or may be brown because of mud and silt particulate inclusions. Chemistry[ edit ] Many factors impact the shape and color of speleothem formations including the rate and direction of water seepage, the amount of acid in the water, the temperature and humidity content of a cave, air currents, the above ground climate, the amount of annual rainfall and the density of the plant cover.

ESR dating is a new dating method in range from ~60 thousand years ago to 2 million years ago, a period when the application of radiocarbon dating is problematic. Each radioactive isotope decays according to its half-life period and emits α or β particles, or γ rays.

The reasons are historical. In the mid-seventeenth century, Dutch settlers began to occupy the part of South Africa now known as the Western Cape. South African law reflects this history of successive colonial governance. The ‘common law’ of the country in this context, ‘common law’ implies law of non-statutory origin is based on the ‘Roman-Dutch’ law of the original Dutch settlers. This is civilian law – Roman law as interpreted by the Dutch writers of the 17th and 18th centuries.

Thus originally, important primary sources of South African law were the treatises of authors such as Grotius, Johannes Voet, Simon Groenewegen and Johannes van der Linden. Law was modified or expanded by statute. When the British took possession of the Cape in they did not impose their substantive legal system in a formal way. Instead, it was decided that the local Roman-Dutch law would remain in force. However, English procedural law was adopted and this had a tendency to influence substantive provisions.

Furthermore, Roman-Dutch Law did not always cater for the requirements of the modern society that developed during the 19th century, necessitating legislative innovation, which was often based on English acts and interpreted using relevant English precedent.

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What’s the deal with the Sahelanthropus femur? The species is known from a skull and several mandibular specimens, found in Chad in by a team led by the French scientist Michel Brunet. These fossils are thought to date to between 6 million and 7 million years ago, approximately the time that our branch of the primate family tree diverged from the ancestors of chimpanzees and gorillas.

It undergirds our best current timeline of human origins. It has been claimed as the earliest evidence for upright posture and bipedal locomotion in our lineage.

ESR dating is only possible when materials behave as a natural dosimeter, meaning that the sample records radiation over time (Fig. 2). The palaeodose corresponds to the dose that the sample has received over time and is directly related to the age.

This marked the end of Zeyd’s maintainership of ncurses. It was still his mailing list, but it was the last release that he prepared, and he made only minor contributions past that point. The release introduced a bug in the form library; it did not refresh. I decided at this point that I would no longer send patches to Eric or Zeyd: I had done more than half of the total work on ncurses during the past year.

I had more than once done the fixes to repair a broken release.

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Room , Valley Life Sciences Building University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA Coevolution between phytophagous insect antagonists and Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic seed plant hosts at the level of their respective developmental tool kits with focus on selective forces that drive the logic of transcriptional regulation is proposed in the following essay to explain the origin and evolution of flowering plants and certain Holometabola.

I discuss potential coevolution of insect and seed plant helix-turn-helix proteins, specifically Engraled and Leafy enzymes that bind to cis-regulatory promoters controlling downstream expression of genes determining paedomorphic insect body patterns and plant cone and floral organ development. The picture of the rock slab on the left is of an indeterminate pentamerous fossil rosid flower Celastrales, Rosanae collected by Professor David L.

He has conducted research on basic principles and mechanisms in ESR and TL, as well as dating studies on archeological sites throughout the world. He is the founding Editor of Quaternary Geochronology, a member of several international journal editorial boards, and a life member of Clare Hall College, Cambridge.

Section of the Constitution addresses the various circumstances in which international agreements or treaties are applicable in South Africa. This provision provides that as a general rule, a n international treaty that has been ratified and approved by the National Parliament, becomes locally enforceable by the courts as part of domestic law when it is transformed or incorporated into local law.

Both transformation and incorporation are legislative measures, meaning that they involve the adoption of local legislation to give effect to the treaty in question. In the event of incorporation, the local legislation simply adopts the treaty in toto as being applicable as domestic law. Interestingly, section 4 specifies that a self-executing provision of an international agreement is applicable without transformation or incorporation, if it is approved by parliament and consistent with the Constitution.

Some scholars have argued that the vagueness of what is meant by a self-executing provision may provoke debate. Customary international law refers to rules that are developed as the result of consistent widespread state practice, which practice is viewed as legally binding by those states. In addition, section of the Constitution obliges every court when interpreting legislation to prefer any reasonable interpretation of the legislation which is consistent with international law over any interpretation which is not.

Importantly, Section 39 1 b of the Constitution obliges courts in South Africa to consider international law when interpreting the Bill of Rights of the Constitution. The Constitutional Court has held that reference to international law in this provision includes both binding as well as non-binding international law. Sources of Legislation Print form:

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

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